8-9). Moreover, predatory behavior involving vertebrate prey has now been recorded at all major study sites in equatorial Africa, from Uganda and Tanzania to Sierra Leone and Senegal. Later, after the term "monkey" had been introduced into English, "ape" was specialized to refer to a tailless (therefore exceptionally human-like) primate. Postcranial In comparison to human postcranial anatomy (skeletal anatomy that is below the skull), the ape pelvis is longer and narrower. Other ape diets. ), such terms are first used as shorthand references to a particular dietary specialization but then gradually become inclusive descriptions of an animal's entire diet. It is interesting to note that advocates of vegetarian diets who use the diet of apes as a rational to support their food choice–asserting that the ape diet is more “natural”–fail to advocate eating a diet of all-raw plant foods as the apes do. Another problem with the "imitation" argument is that imitative learning in captive chimps is common, but in wild chimpanzees it is rare; see Boesch and Tomasello  for discussion on this point. [T]he Gombe chimpanzees removed 8% of the local baboon population in 1968-1969 (Teleki, 1973a) and 8-13% of the local colobus population in 1973-1974 (Busse, 1977). REPLY/COMMENTS: The reality is that predation on vertebrates by chimpanzees is widespread throughout tropical Africa. Of further interest here is the information that termites are known to contain significant quantities of vitamin B-12; see Wakayama et al. ...the anomalous nature of an interspecific relationship that includes play with baboons, consumption of baboons, and competition with baboons for at least one kind of prey... Any answer other than the proposition that chimpanzees have only recently acquired predatory inclinations, for which there is no supportive evidence at all (Teleki, 1973a), would be welcome." (Ape Diets: Myths, Realities, and Rationalizations, cont.) Ape diets, with emphasis on chimpanzees, are summarized in the article "Setting the Scientific Record Straight on Humanity's Evolutionary Prehistoric Diet and Ape Diets" on this site. Teleki [1981, pp. Further, there is even some academic disagreement over the definition and use of the term "omnivore." In this article, a primary objective is to communicate concepts clearly and accurately but without undue complexity. REPLY/COMMENTS: The reality is that predation on vertebrates by chimpanzees is widespread throughout tropical Africa. While the great apes are considerably larger than monkeys, gibbons (lesser apes) are smaller than some monkeys. First, as mentioned above, the idea that apes (or primates in general) are strict vegetarians in the normal human sense of the word is a misconception of the past. Being locked in the zoo and offered bananas to eat is the kind of extreme diet scenario to wake some of us screaming in the night. Other writers (elsewhere, not in FFH) suggest that chimps eat meat in imitation of baboons. In a letter to Johann Georg Gmelin dated 25 February 1747, Linnaeus wrote: Accordingly, Johann Friedrich Blumenbach in the first edition of his Manual of Natural History (1779), proposed that the primates be divided into the Quadrumana (four-handed, i.e. https://fanaticcook.blogspot.com/2009/06/are-ape-diets-suited-to-humans.html Uppsala, Sweden, 25 February 1747", "Hominoid systematics: The soft evidence", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ape&oldid=991310945, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2016, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from July 2019, Articles needing additional references from July 2011, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 11:41. The key components of the ape diet are plant sterols, found in plant oils and enriched margarines, viscous fibre, found in oats, barley and aubergine, and soy protein and nuts. The booklet argues that: GO TO PART 7 - Insights about Human Nutrition & Digestion from Comparative Physiology GO TO PART 8 - Further Issues in the Debate over Omnivorous vs. Vegetarian Diets Humans and close relatives including the tribes Hominini and Gorillini form the subfamily Homininae (see classification graphic below). Today, there are eight extant genera of hominoids. PART 1 PART 2 PART 3 PART 4 PART 5 PART 6 PART 7 PART 8 PART 9 Animal food consumption common Moreover, predatory behavior involving vertebrate prey has now been recorded at all major study sites in equatorial Africa, from Uganda and Tanzania to Sierra Leone and Senegal. Our epidemics of dietary disease have prompted a great deal of research into what humans are meant to eat for optimal health. humans).  Some of these primates are now close to extinction with habitat loss being the underlying cause. Kortlandt  also discusses insect consumption by chimps (p. 133): Back to Research-Based Appraisals of Alternative Diet Lore, Beyond Veg home | Feedback | Links, In general, dietary classifications in nature are not as distinct/. The structural problems in the above type of argument are addressed in later sections. Apes have a particular type of sialic acid on their cells, which is not found in humans. Note: The above quote is included to specifically inform readers that there is no evidence that predation by chimps is a "new" behavior, and that there is extensive, complex, baboon/chimp interaction. "Old World Monkey" may also legitimately be taken to be meant to include all the catarrhines, including apes and extinct species such as Aegyptopithecus, in which case the apes, Cercopithecoidea and Aegyptopithecus emerged within the Old World Monkeys. GO TO NEXT PART OF ARTICLE Note: The above quote is included to specifically inform readers that there is no evidence that predation by chimps is a "new" behavior, and that there is extensive, complex, baboon/chimp interaction. The aquatic ape hypothesis (AAH), also referred to as aquatic ape theory (AAT) is the idea that ancestors of modern humans were more aquatic than those of other great apes.. Any answer other than the proposition that chimpanzees have only recently acquired predatory inclinations, for which there is no supportive evidence at all (Teleki, 1973a), would be welcome." Flowers, fruits, leaves and insects serve up a plethora of hearty meals. In The Descent of Man, Charles Darwin wrote: The greater number of naturalists who have taken into consideration the whole structure of man, including his mental faculties, have followed Blumenbach and Cuvier, and have placed man in a separate Order, under the title of the Bimana, and therefore on an equality with the orders of the Quadrumana, Carnivora, etc. Tutin and Fernandez  report consumption of insects by lowland gorillas in the Lope Reserve, Gabon: termites (whose remains were contained in 27.4% of gorilla feces) and weaver ants. Further, in comparison with Old World monkeys, hominoids are noted for: more mobile shoulder joints and arms due to the dorsal position of the scapula; broader ribcages that are flatter front-to-back; and a shorter, less mobile spine, with greatly reduced caudal (tail) vertebrae—resulting in complete loss of the tail in living hominoid species. Hladik and Viroben (1974) have shown that this insect food is nutritionally important in order to compensate for a deficiency of certain amino acids in the plant foods, even in the rich environment of the Gabon rain-forest. GO TO NEXT PART OF ARTICLE It has been proposed that anatomical differences in human and great ape guts arose in response to species-specific diets and energy demands. Are Humans Frugivores? PART 1 PART 2 PART 3 PART 4 PART 5 PART 6 PART 7 PART 8 PART 9 SEE TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR: Currently considered to be the greatest threat to survival of African apes, Ebola infection is responsible for the death of at least one third of all gorillas and chimpanzees since 1990. The taxonomy shown here follows the monophyletic groupings according to the modern understanding of human and great ape relationships. However, as knowledge of the actual diet of wild primates/anthropoid apes (from field observation studies) increases, the reality that most primates/apes include some animal foods (even if only insects) in their normal, natural diet is becoming better known. Though gut proportions differ, overall gut anatomy and the pattern of digestive kinetics of extant apes and humans are very similar. The history of hominoid taxonomy is complex and somewhat confusing. ...the anomalous nature of an interspecific relationship that includes play with baboons, consumption of baboons, and competition with baboons for at least one kind of prey... Regarding chimpanzee predation, Teleki [1981, p. 305] reports that: In all large, omnivorous, nonhuman primates, animal protein is a very small but presumably necessary component of the diet. First, as mentioned above, the idea that apes (or primates in general) are strict vegetarians in the normal human sense of the word is a misconception of the past.